Parent's Participation in Children's Education

You cannot expect the school district to bear sole responsibility for the teaching of a child. Education is a process, so stick with your child each step along the way to ensure a smooth transition through the years.

Know your child
According to Betsy Combier, administrator for the website, knowing your child is the first step. Take an active role in recognizing what your child's strengths and weaknesses are and knowing how he learns best. If you know what excites and frustrates your child from a learning perspective, then that information can serve as a point of reference for his teacher. Combier recommends sharing these feelings along with him. "Get in there," she says. "Get excited right along with him."

Be active
To maximize your child's education, it is not enough just to have your voice heard during an annual parent-teacher conference. Teachers want your help in educating your child through his successes and failures. Reach out to your child's teacher with phone calls and e-mails. If you two maintain a cooperative relationship from the onset of the school year then if and when an issue arises you can face it together as a team. A joint understanding and clear communication are usually enough to help solve any problem.

Success benchmarks
No classroom environment is perfect. One teacher cannot address each student's needs. Furthermore, since education is not one-size-fits-all, a high grade does not necessarily mean that your child is being challenged. Parents should ask teachers about course benchmarks and their child 's achievements so they are updated.

Don't forget that other parents can provide a wealth of information as well. All of you have expertise in different areas so share what you know. Also, do your part to know what's expected of your child in each grade by researching educational resources online and reading the newspaper to stay current.

Curriculum check
If you are interested in checking out your child's curriculum, approach the situation from a curiosity perspective so you're not on the offensive when talking to your child's teacher. Do not be afraid to ask questions and know there is always more work that can be done at home. You can enhance your child's education by using library resources as well.

Communication tactics
Always act with integrity because your children are watching. Be respectful of the teacher's boundaries since it is his classroom. Set up appointments beforehand and keep careful notes of any communication you have. If any issues escalate that you and the teacher or the guidance counselor cannot resolve then consider reaching out to the principal or another administrator.

No matter what your parenting style, the key to a successful academic experience is to partner with your children in their education.

Paul Banas is a founder of He writes articles on raising kids, teens sex education, parenting tips and many more topics related to dads.

Save For Your Children's Education

It was once thought that only the wealthy could save enough to afford a good college education for their children. That just is not true. There are plenty of ways for the middle-class and lower-income households to save for their children's futures, as well.

Consider the Coverdell Education Savings Account, which allows you to save up to $2000 annually for your child's future education. You can make deposits into the account until its beneficiary reaches the age of eighteen. The contributions are not tax-deductible, but the distribution withdrawals are not taxed. This is a classic way to grow wealth and you will be able to use the money for most school-related expenses.

You may also want to consider a College Savings Plan, one of two 529 plans available for college education savings. Under this plan, you can choose from a variety of investment options and you will not pay taxes when the funds are withdrawn to use for education.

The second 529 plan is the Prepaid Tuition Plan. It basically allows you to pay today's prices for tomorrow's tuition. By pre-purchasing your child's education, you lock in his or her future tuition at today's prices.

If you invest early in Savings Bonds for Education, they can work well to help finance your children's future education. The plus to this investment is that the money can be pulled at any time to use in case of a financial emergency.

If your child is approaching college age now and you have no savings on hand for their education, there are still tax credits available to you. Right now the American Opportunity Tax Credit is the best of these options. You can also qualify for lifetime learning credits, classroom expenses deductions, and tax deductions for higher education fees and tuition.

The IRS usually does not allow a taxpayer to claim more than one large college savings plan on their income tax return, so you will want to be careful and deliberate in choosing the right option for you.

You would probably benefit from a conversation with a financial planner to discuss the best way to save for your child's future education, and remember that it is never too soon to start.

Chintamani Abhyankar, is a well known expert in the field of finance and taxation for last 25 years. His famous Tax eBook [] "Stop donating your money to IRS" which is now running in its second edition, provides intricate knowledge and valuable tips on personal finance and income tax. Just visit his website [] and claim your FREE eBook

Special Needs Children's Education

It's almost as though homeschooling was invented for a special needs children's education.  Kids afflicted with ADHD, autism, dyslexia or Asperger's among other learning difficulties can all benefit from being taught at home by their parents.  Some public school systems can afford to hire trained therapists for these fields, but the extra attention and time afforded a student at home by a loved one can make a big difference in a child's ability to learn.  It's just natural for a parent to be able to teach their own child more effectively.  They've been doing it for the student's whole life and know how to best approach new things with them.  They will likely be more patient than a public school teacher and offer the extra time it might take to learn.  A classroom would likely not be as able to offer the one-on-one time it might take until a student "gets it".

It's likely a parent would also know better than a public school instructor what manner of teaching would best suit their child.  Some learn better with visual aids, some by repetition and some by seeing it done for them and copying what they're taught.  It's very likely a parent would already know this from their own experience.  They'll also know what to look for when a special needs child is getting frustrated and ready to act up or quit, thereby avoiding a bad learning experience for the child.

If you're wondering what sort of curriculum would best suit your special needs children's education, there are several avenues to get started.

We would first look on the Internet.  Non-profit groups who support your child's disorder will likely have a presence there and should have good information about learning difficulties and how to overcome them.  They will likely make suggestions or direct you to other good sources.  They may even list case studies of various methods of learning and their success rates.

We would also try to find support groups on the Internet for your particular disease.  There will likely be several forums on the Web where you can read others' posts and ask questions directly.  Parents on these websites are often very willing to share their experiences and will offer help when they can.  Although your child is an individual, often there can be common practices that will help almost all children suffering from a common ailment.

There are also many books available about homeschooling your special needs children.  Some are written specifically for particular disorders and offer teaching suggestions as well as curriculum selection guides.  Most are written by people who have been homeschooling their own special needs children, so they speak with experience and write in every day language, rather than from theory with medical-babble-speak.

If you start with these suggestions, you should quickly be on the road to solving how to best get your special needs children educated.  It can be as rewarding for you as it will be for your child since you will have contributed directly to his education and well-being.

A J Adams has had a keen interest in home schooling for a number of years. With several public school teachers in his family, he has had many discussions regarding current school problems. He's heard many suggestions, one of which was the growing number of children being home schooled. After a thorough period of research, he decided to write an article about special needs children education []. He will be submitting more in future articles. Mr. Adams also owns and maintains a website with his wife at [] where you can get a free 10-part mini-course on homeschooling and watch a touching video made by a young man to thank his mother for her many years of homeschooling him.

Guide For Parents to Choose the Best Children Educational Toys

Finding a balance between a toy that entertains and one that educates becomes every parent's challenge. Toys need to be fun above all so that a child feels delighted when they're playing and stays interested in the toy. Choosing a toy that stimulates a child in a positive way should also be part of the decision. Safety features, functionality and durability ensure a good purchase and one that lasts. There are a few key factors to consider that help make the choice easier.

What to Consider when Choosing a Toy

Child's Age: It's better to buy a toy that a child can grow with instead of one that's babyish. Kids become bored in a hurry with a toy that fails to challenge their curiosity. Toys are usually rated for a particular age group but most children will appreciate a "big kid" toy if it's safe for them and makes them feel grown up.

Child's Preferences: Always think about the child first and what might appeal to them. If they seem to enjoy music, look for beginning level instruments. Active kids need sports oriented items and may not appreciate a book unless it's filled with exciting images. Girls that love frilly things may be thrilled with princess dress-up clothes while her sister who loves to climb trees would enjoy a jump rope instead.

Appearance of the Toy: Younger children need toys that attract attention with bright colors and cheerful images. Make sure the toy is attractive once the packaging is removed. Action figures and characters from favorite movies inspire kids to start a collection of their own.

Durability and Maintenance: Buy toys that endure rough treatment so that children may play freely without concern. Consider whether batteries are required and can be conveniently changed. Toys manufactured by reputable makers may cost a little more but provide longer durability and the ability to be used by other children in the family.

Function of the Toy: Try to find toys that provide useful entertainment and allow the child to think on their own rather than one that just requires pushing buttons. Toys that allow creativity such as drawing, painting, sculpting with clay or gluing models may seem old fashioned but never go out of style. Kids will enjoy spending some quality time making something on their own. Sometimes simple toys such as soccer balls or a set of building blocks provide hours of fun especially if they are updated with trendy logos or new features.

Safety Issues: Toys made from small pieces may harm toddlers or the younger siblings of older children. Check the labels for components and potential harmful materials and don't introduce anything into the home that can't be carefully guarded.

Helping children to discover and nurture their genius at Learning Toys for Kids []

Saving For Children's Education

One of the most common financial goals that couples have is to save money for their children's education, whether that be at a private school or a tertiary institution. Saving for this purpose is no different than saving for any other goal in life, yet there is a common misperception that funds need to be set aside separately or even in the child's name for this purpose. That can lead to a lower rate of investment return in some cases.

If you are going to save for your children's education, then you're probably looking at saving tens of thousands of dollars and it will take a number of years to get to that target.

That means starting when the child is young - in fact, probably at the preschool age. Anybody with preschoolers most probably has a mortgage. With mortgage interest rates being so high, the best place to put your money is into your mortgage to keep the interest payments down. If, for example, you are paying say 7.0% interest on your mortgage you would need to earn at least 7.0% after tax on an investment to make it worthwhile investing and not paying your mortgage. So pay off your debt as fast as you can, and then remortgage later if your still really want to help your kids. If you have grandchildren that you wish to provide for, the situation may be a little different. You probably won't have a mortgage and you may wish to make funds available that are clearly earmarked for your grandchildren and clearly specified to be used only for education costs. A good way of achieving these objectives is to set up an education trust. This can be done through a solicitor or trustee company. There will be a fee involved to establish and maintain the trust, but there will be safeguards in place to ensure that the funds are used for the purpose you intend. An education trust can be particularly useful in certain situations, for example, where there is a relationship breakdown between parents and a parent or grandparent wishes to make funds available without the risk of the money being used for a different purpose. An education trust can also be used where funds might be at risk of a possible future claim by business creditors.

There are specialist funds available that offer educational scholarships. The idea is that you contribute a regular amount into the fund and, if your child attends a tertiary institution there is a scholarship payable. Such funds need to be looked at carefully in terms of the likelihood of your child attending a tertiary institution and, in the event they do, the value of the scholarship in relation to the funds invested.

Liz Koh is a financial planner and the author of the best selling book - Your Money Personality: Unlock the Secret to a Rich and Happy Life, Awa Press, 2008, available from

For Liz's best tips for financial security, visit her website to receive your free e-book "8 Steps to Financial Freedom".

Parents and the Child Education

The good old adage that says "children are the leaders of tomorrow" is actually an indisputable truth and should not be ignored. As a result of this, children's education should be taken very serious and parents should not leave it up to schools alone. Schools tried their best, but the sole responsibilities lie on the parents, because they are suppose to give the child a head start in life than what is being taught in schools.

Schools are being directed by professional teachers and they can only perform within the dictate of their professional ethics. For example if a child lagged behind in any subject, it is the responsibility of the school to make sure that the child is able to cope with the subject based on the teacher's expertise and the school's approved standard of effective tutoring, anything that falls out this could be considered poor performance. This is to say that, parents should step up and do something to make sure that the child is able meet up and pass any of the difficult subjects - but not going to the school and be harassing the innocent teachers.

Parents can help the schools by encouraging the child to attend extra classes outside of school hours, with the aims of helping to boost the school efforts in the child's education. For example, in the Asian countries, children's education is on their top economic priorities, most students attends extra classes after schools hours and they all tried to learn English, because they know that they are going to have a better chance of securing good job after their education.

But, the attitude of parents towards children's education in some western countries is nothing to write home about. This is due to the advent of technology; students can close from schools to a place of fun or can even get busy by spending the rest of the day chatting with friends - it is not good for a child's future and parents must do something about it.

I am of the opinion that, it has to do with parent's attitudes toward the future. Some decades ago, things have been going smoothly and children did not need to worry about the future, this is due to the solid foundation laid by our founding fathers. But now, the attitudes has changed children education has been completely handed over to teachers and parents have forgotten; that tender motherly love and the soothing fatherly word of a caring father can do spur that child to the next level of educational achievement.

Science, Technology, Biology And Our Future

A new era of science has begun. Starting now, and lasting for at least the next 15 years, many discoveries will be made and found at an incredible rate. Of course we will have incredible discoveries 15 years out, but right now marks a particular point in our history within science and technology that will shape our lives for many years ahead, and will revolutionize our thinking. Here are just a few of those things that will change the world.

Within the past year a new form of stem cell research has begun. Stem cell research has always been riddled with controversy because of the need for human embryos. A new technique is being perfected that allows scientists to take the skin cells off of a patient and essentially transform them into stem cells (this has currently only been done on animals). With a patient's own stem cells now (from the patients skin, no embryos needed) available they can then convert them into any cell in the body and replicate them. This is huge, and advancements can come quickly now because human embryos aren't needed and politics won't get in the way.

Recently The Large Hadron Collider project announced it's soon-to-be completion. They installed the last major part in this huge under ground particle accelerator. Scientists are hoping by bashing elements and atoms at near light speeds they can unravel many of the mysteries in science and quantum mechanics. The Large Hadron Collider will possibly tell us if there are other dimensions, and possibly make Michio Kaku happy by also letting us know if strings do exist (sub atomic scale) and if String Theory is fact.

Lastly, we are also entering a new telescope type era. The Large Binocular Telescope has officially announced its competition. It has two 8.4 meter mirrors to view the night sky like never before. It will have ten times the resolution of the Hubble Telescope. Coming up we have the Kepler Mission which will look at 100,000 stars and look for earth-like planets in space. We also have the Giant Magellan Telescope, and The Thirty Meter Telescope (Major Funding By Gordon Moore) slated form completion by 2015.

Within the next 10 years these telescopes will be able to confirm if there are truly rocky earth-like worlds out there with the ingredients for life. Our new science is telling us that at least a quarter of all stars have planets orbiting them. Considering that there are about 400 billion stars in our galaxy, and at least 100 billion galaxies, the odds are great for earth-like planets to be around. We already have confirmed multiple rocky slightly larger than earth planets in the habitable zone. With our new technology and telescopes we can see just how many there are, and exactly what their atmospheres are made out of.

Going a step further. It's possible we will make one of the biggest discoveries of all time within the next 20 years if we continue at the rate of technological advancement that we are going at. We may possibly know the answer to if there is other life out there, not from earth. I personally believe it could simply be there is or isn't, but the scientific community is saying within 15-20 years we may finally have an answer.

Concluding. We are making huge advancements in medicine, technology, space, and other areas. It's interesting to see how far we have come as a civilization. Hopefully along with our advancements we still realize how important the simple things are and keep our earth healthy and clean. It is an exciting future, enjoy the ride.

Mike Monahan is the Editor In Chief of

The headquarters for Science News

Science And Nature For Kids

Why is the grass green? Why is the sky blue? Why is the tree bigger than the other? Why do I feel hungry? These are a few of the hundred questions a child asks his parents day in and day out.

But by condemning children for their incessant questions, you stub out their inquisitiveness that leads to growth of knowledge. Teaching science and nature to kids is a great way to help them explore the world. A world that is far different than what they live in. You may think they get enough of science from their school textbooks. But that is far little than what a malleable kid's mind can devour.

You do not have to set up a lab or invest heavily in instruments. The world is an open laboratory and the best way to teach your child is to take him out into the world. Stare at the moon and see it change shapes through the month. Makes notes of the same on the calendar and then predict its shape for the coming week.

See flowers bloom and question why flowers droop and wither, See animal and plant behaviour, see fish move swiftly and check how they sleep, how does the washing machine work, how does the fruit mixer grind fruits? What is the material in a sofa or a bed, why is it used?

Science is everywhere, it can be learnt and observed and fed into your child's mind, leaving them asking more questions than ever before. You don't have to be a scientist or an engineer to know all the answers but a positive approach towards science is all that you need.

Keep your mind and ears open and teach your children the same. Fuel them to ask questions, relevant questions not just mindless questions. Put science books under their noses and sit and watch discovery and national geographic together with your kids.

Hold mini competitions in your house with questions in regard to general knowledge of science and nature. This will encourage your children to dig into books and learn the nuances of everyday science. Being in-step with science will help your child be updated and walk tall in life.

How do you get a cold? What is the cure to it? How can you avoid getting a cold? Are a few questions you can get your child to ask and answer? Do not spoon feed them, let the mind explore. It helps build logic to form an answer. In this way children can decode science and make sense of the world.

When your children are exposed to the world or in conversation with older people they can be a part of it with their wealth of information which only you can induce them to swallow. Sometimes children get so engrossed in science and nature that they get far ahead in life and take up professions in relation to this field. But it all begins when the tender mind is hungry for knowledge.

You can assist your child cultivate in great knowledge by giving them appropriate hobby ideas [] which could either be pumpkin carving or halloween crafts. Click on the links to know more on the same.

6 Amazing Things About Your Digestive System - Human Anatomy Facts and Myths

We all understand that the digestive system is simply the process that our body uses to glean the benefits of the foods we eat. Some of us have more knowledge about it than others, and that often comes from the type of education we are exposed to. For example. students that took biology will perhaps know a lot more than an individual who studied a trade about mechanics. There are many things about the digestive system that are just plain interesting to know. For example...

Did you know that;
In our stomach the food and liquids we take in are mixed with digestive juices. These are all mixed together within the stomach until they are small enough to be absorbed into our system. The interesting part is that each day this all adds up to about 11.5 liters which flows through the digestive system. Out of that entire amount only approx. 100mls is of no value to us, and ends up being passed through the bowels as feces.

Did you know that;
The stomach has to break down the different types of food we ingest. One of these being protein. To do the job the stomach secretes enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The stomach is so efficient at its job that between 2-6 hours later it is totally emptied of its contents and is ready for the next batch. Now you know why you're hungry.

Did you know that:
You liver is a food inspector? One of the jobs of the liver is to inspect the nutrients that are going to go to our bloodstream. Its job is to supply detoxification by getting rid of the impurities. This assists the digestion process. Good reason to keep your liver in top working condition.

Did you know that:
That by our not looking after our digestive system properly we could be hurting our financial economy? Well at least indirectly anyways. Digestive problems cost Approx $50 billion every year in America, in both direct costs and individuals suffering from these problems who cannot work.

Did you know that:
We may be able to help control indigestion by the way we cook? In order for us to properly digest our food it takes 100 of enzymes of many different varieties. There are enzymes in our food, but we destroy these when we cook our food. So because the body needs them it is forced to manufacture them. After a while our body may get tired of doing all this extra work, so it will go on strike and not produce a efficient amount. Then once that happens, you better start heading for the antacids, because you are in for a bout of indigestion. With the germs and pesticides and other things that are foods are exposed to, unfortunately we really don't have a choice but to thoroughly cook our foods.

And saving the best for last...

Did you know that:
You could stand on your head and the food would still get down to your stomach? Now we really recommend that you don't do this. The reason it will get down there, is because the esophagus is about 25 cm., long, and our muscles will contract in waves to push the food down these 25 cm..

These facts that we have just covered are very interesting to most people. By listening to them or reading them, you have provided yourself with some fairly substantial knowledge about the digestive system. Imagine that, being able to learn something about the human body without becoming overwhelmed or bored. Now that is interesting!


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Improving Biology Education

Everybody agrees that education is important. Likewise, it has become a commonplace to say that we aren't educating the nation's children as well as we should. Improving education is an exceptionally complex task, but one part of the problem is that we're having trouble as a society defining what a "good education" actually is. This is a particular problem in subjects that are politically and emotionally charged. One of the most acrimonious areas of education is the one that is also nearest to my own heart: biology. Allow me to lay out some thoughts on what a sound education in biology ought to look like, and what the benefits of this might be on both the individual and the societal level.

First, and perhaps most importantly, it is critical that all sciences, including biology, are taught as a process and a way of thinking, rather than a set of facts that are "true" and must be memorized. For example, one of the more startling ideas in biology is that much of the weight of an oak tree has actually been pulled out of thin air. If someone just told me that, and I had no idea where the information came from, I'd think they were a bit loopy at best or trying to sell me a bill of gods at worst. Equipped with an actual understanding of the scientific inquiry that went into this discovery, I not only believe it, but more importantly I understand and remember it as well. Now, replicating even the simplest of the experiments scientists used to unravel the question "How do plants gain weight?" would be difficult in the average classroom and probably not the best use of precious time. But looking into case studies like this one is a fabulous way to learn about both scientific facts and scientific thinking.

Once we start thinking about biology as a process of acquiring knowledge about living things and biology education as an opportunity to understand that process and hone critical thinking skills at the same time, we will be in a much stronger position to improve science education than we are in now. At that point, we'll be well placed to reliably turn out scientifically literate high school graduates and also to tackle teaching more politically charged aspects of biology education.

Without question, the most politically charged aspect of biology is evolution. It is also among the very most important scientific ideas ever elucidated. If we present evolution in the classroom as "great man, Charles Darwin, discovered evolution, and now we know that people descended from apes without the help of God" we have only ourselves to blame if 65 % of American citizens are creationists . Evolution education might not be quite that bad in most schools, but I'll warrant that it's not too much better. What do we lose if evolution is understood by only a minority of Americans? Well, from an aesthetic point of view, it seems a shame that so many of us don't understand one of the big ideas about how the world works. From a practical perspective, it's just plain scary that most of the farmers who use antibiotics to help their livestock gain weight and most of the patients who don't follow their doctor's instruction when it comes to taking antibiotics don't understand the role they are playing in promoting the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

One frequent complaint I hear from students in high school biology classes is that there is so much memorization. This is more closely linked to the failures of our educational system than you might think at first. True, there is a significant amount of new vocabulary that students must learn if they are going to be able to speak, think, read, and write about new concepts. However, a biology class should never feel like a pile of memorization to slog through. The most important thing we can do to change this is to focus on the how's and why's of biology rather than just the conclusions that biologists have drawn over the years. In this way, students will be making connections and developing big picture concepts rather than just memorizing niggling little facts.

An important result of this type of education is that years after high school is over, a student who actually developed a genuine understanding of biology is far less likely to be the person frivolously abusing antibiotics.

Another way to greatly improve this situation is to eliminate pure survey classes and require students to study one or two areas in much greater depth. One model that I have seen work quite well at the introductory high school level is to have a traditional survey-style class supplemented by two significant research projects. One of the research projects was a hands-on experiment (or series of experiments), much like a traditional science fair project. The other was an in-depth library-based research project, much like a term paper more traditionally seen in history classes. These types of projects are not without costs. Most notably, they are very hard on the teacher. It takes a tremendous amount of time and energy to coordinate a hundred (or usually more) projects, each on a different topic. This is daunting for a teacher even under the best of circumstances and can be impossible in more difficult situations. Nevertheless, the benefits are clear and significant. Not only do these types of projects give students an opportunity to develop a real understanding of scientific thinking, but they also give the students a library of interlinked facts to refer to when they are trying to make sense of the big picture in biology.

For example, a student who chooses to do a research report on handedness and brain asymmetry in humans will undoubtedly learn about neurology, evolution, and epilepsy as well. As an added bonus, if the projects are structured properly, students get much needed practice making visual and oral presentations and writing non-fiction papers. Rather than just throwing up our hands and saying that this type of education is too difficult to organize, we need to structure our schools (and exert peer-pressure on parents) so that this type of higher-level learning becomes feasible.

A good education in biology should be a routine part of the education that every American student receives. We need to structure curriculums and classrooms so that science is taught as a process and method rather than some sort of received truth. This type of science education is an important part of teaching students to have strong critical thinking skills and for ensuring that they have the tools to not simply negotiate the modern world, but also thrive in it.

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Chemical Analysis in Science and in Nature

Analytical chemistry has been at the forefront of all sciences since humankind has been interested in its world. How something looks before tasting became the initial form of experimentation. When it was discovered that looks were not everything, tasting became the standard for choosing food, and the saving of lives. Food that had a particular chemical makeup, whether poisonous or beneficial, could be determined by the tongue, Nature's own chemical analysis set.

Acids and alkalis can be determined by the reaction of themselves with themselves. For example, bicarbonate of soda, or sodium hydrogen carbonate, mixed with ascetic acid, or vinegar, reacts almost violently, producing a gas and another material altogether. This simple classroom experiment leads one to think of how chemicals react with one another, thus bringing the thinker into the realm of chemical analysis.

How molecules and atoms react with one another, their composition, their properties, all of these things are the basis for analytical chemistry. Discovering the elements was a huge step in this direction, as the atomic makeup of each element discovered led to how molecules are formed. Molecular chemistry is the study and chemical analysis of the properties of molecules. Molecules are the binding of two or more atoms in a grouping or sequence, and even two atoms of the same element can make up a molecule.

In chemistry analysis, for a field such as the medical laboratory, samples of a patient's body fluids are analyzed for their chemical composition. Blood plasma, blood serum, urine, and even spinal fluid can be analyzed for principle chemicals to indicate health or possible disease. Blood plasma is used commonly in chemical analysis to detect levels of glucose in the blood, and essential analysis for diabetes.

Blood serum can be used to detect a vast array of biochemical functions in the human body, such as electrolytes for brain and nerve function, to thyroid stimulating hormone function. Human blood chemistry is very complex, but chemistry analysis has sorted it out to be easily comprehended.

Human urine chemistry analysis can reveal any number of functions of the kidneys and metabolism functions. It is also vital to use urine to detect possible unlawful drug use in individuals it is suspected. Urine chemistry is just as valuable as blood chemistry analysis, as it can also make known certain functions of the other body organs, and even show a problem in diabetic patients.

Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis is an extremely useful tool for detecting many neurological problems in a patient. Proteins and glucose present in CSF can indicate potential disease when detected beyond normal ranges.

The benefit of chemistry analysis in natural sciences such as biology and environmental disciplines is outstanding for the understanding of our world. Pharmaceutical companies would never be able to research potential natural medicines without chemistry analysis. It is such a vital function in the scientific setting, that geologists, archeologists, and even paleontologists would be blind without it.

Chemistry analysis has opened the mind and eyes of many scientists over the millennia, and has born the development of new medicines and chemicals for industry and the home. "Better living through chemistry" would never have been quipped if it had not been for a chemistry analysis being accomplished.

Take a look at other relevant information about ion analysis and chemical analysis services including ion analysis products as well as chemical analysis related material.

Modern Methods For Biochemistry Analysis

A biochemisty analyser is a device designed to perform a variety of biochemical tests. Invented by Hans Baruch, they were introduced to the medical community, commercially, in 1959, and allowed medical laboratories and hospitals to process more samples more quickly and effectively than before. With this automated testing process, the testing time went from days - sometimes weeks - to mere minutes.

Before then, the most common form of biochemical analysis involved open test tubes placed in racks which were then either moved along a track or spun in a carousel. To protect the samples from contamination, and the laboratory staff from illness or injury, closed tube sampling soon followed. The automated biochemistry analysers did not remove the need for clinical lab technicians, however, but it did make working in the labs safer, and helped reduce errors.

There are a variety of tests a biochemistry analyser performs. They can range from testing enzymes for liver function tests, to testing ions for sodium and potassium levels. Blood glucose, creatine, and serum albumin - a plasma protein - among others, can also be analysed.

There are three categories of biochemistry analysers: The wet type, the dry type and the bio sensor. The wet type method involves mixing a test sample with a reagent to encourage a chemical reaction. A reading device, such as a spectrophotometer or a calorimeter can then be used to read the color change before and after the reaction, allowing for analysis. However, this form of testing requires expensive instruments and the ability to keep the reagents valid for long periods of time.

The dry type biochemistry analyser requires the application of a chemical reagent to a test strip, such an antibody or enzyme, which will react directly with the test sample. With the dry type of testing there is a greater risk of oxidation of the test strip which can allow for faulty readings.

When using a biosensor type biochemistry analyser, the test sample may be oxidized and placed on a thin film which is placed onto the surface of an electrode, such as pillar hydrogen peroxide, which is among the most common, and then a polarized potential is applied to the anode and cathode, which releases elctrodes, which may be measured. However, the pillar electrodes require constant maintenance which can lead to cross pollution which can lead to mistaken readings.

Some tests require more specialized tests and require a separate biochemistry analyser. This analyser may be used for several tets, or a single test. Some of these are performed frequently, but others are not, and the majority are expensive to perform, as well as time consuming. Due to the shortage of skilled clinical laboratory professionals, manufacturers are working to develop automated systems for these rare tests.

With the recent contributions in biology, chemistry and genetics, the biochemistry analyser has been evolving and improving. Biochemical research is being pushed, and is now moving from the study of a few molecules to the functional study of all biomolecules. Today, biochemical analysers are being used to help tag proteins and nucleic acids with special dies thhat allow scientists to make great headway in their quest to sequence the human genome.

Take a look at other relevant information about biochemistry analysers including lab products as well as biochemistry analyser products.

The Fastest Way to Memorize Human Anatomy

A friend of mine was a bit of a slacker -you know the type, slow to study, always ready for the next party but never ready to buckle down. He came to me one night panicking over the next day's test which he hadn't studied for. He said his parents would disown him if he flunked. So I helped him out by teaching him some mnemonics I'd been using to prepare for the test myself.

Mnemonic is just a fancy word for memory aid, you may have heard it once or twice. Mnemonics are particularly useful for trying to absorb complex information, which makes them perfect for memorizing human anatomy. I've yet to come across any other method that works half as fast. Books aren't easy to refer to over and over, and mnemonics use the tools your mind is naturally equipped with. Makes a lot of sense to me, and he seemed to pick it up fast too.

Before he went back to his dorm, I gave him a pop quiz. He'd had a lot of trouble with the muscular system in particular, so I asked him to name the rotator cuff muscles. He remembered one of the mnemonics I showed him and said "The SITS muscles!". Seems like a funny thing to say, but within this mnemonic lies the answer, which he then followed with. It's a clever acronym. SITS --Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor and Subscapularis. We both had a laugh and agreed that it's unbelievably fast to learn and easy to remember. He'd been attending lectures for weeks and still couldn't remember all of the muscles until I taught him that simple phrase. He was chuffed to find a fast way to memorize anatomy.

A few of my other classmates were also struggling with their studies, so I decided to use my microphone to record some of the more complex mnemonics I knew and shared the recordings with them. All of us ended up graduating, and we have some fun using the acronyms together. Most importantly, we know what we're talking about -it's hard to forget. In my experience, mnemonics have proven to be the fastest way to memorize human anatomy.

Discover a proven system to memorize anatomy the easy way. To get started all you have to do is click here.

The Smart Way to Learn Human Anatomy

In terms of learning aids there are many options, the most common being text books, lectures and online study notes. These are all good choices for getting a grip on the basics, but when it comes to learning human anatomy from head to toe, what's the smartest way?

With human anatomy being quite a complicated subject, the smartest way to learn is through something called anatomy mnemonics (a system of memorization techniques, or memory aids). What you may not know is that there are three main stages in the storage and retrieval of information when it comes to human memory - encoding (receiving, processing and combining of received information), storage (creation of a permanent record of the encoded information) and retrieval (recall). So how can we best use this system to our advantage when learning anatomy?

One fantastic example of an anatomy mnemonic at work is as follows. To find the arrangement of nerve, artery and vein in the femoral triangle, all you need to do is learn and remember one easy word: VAN. Why? Because the arrangement, from medial to lateral, goes like this: Vein, Artery, Nerve. V-A-N. Say this to yourself out loud once or twice (it's proven that your mind is more receptive to audio compared to reading) and quiz yourself tomorrow. That's mnemonics at work!

Mnemonics are the smart way to learn human anatomy. By using the psychologically proven formula found in anatomy mnemonics, you will almost certainly be able to pass your next test at university, all without notes. Likewise, if you are a doctor wishing to brush up on your knowledge, or merely someone who wants to study independently, anatomy mnemonics are a great choice. Using the findings of scientists and psychologists, mnemonics help you to retrieve stored knowledge in seconds.

The only proven system to memorize human anatomy can be found by clicking here.

Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

Subcutaneous adipose tissue may be referred to more simply as the layer of fat directly beneath one's skin that exists alongside blood vessels and nerves. The human body takes excess energy and stores it as fats for later use during times of exertion or reduced nutrient intake. Subcutaneous fats are white in appearance and serve to insulate the body against heat loss and to protect and cushion the skeleton against injury. Fat is also essential in carrying out biological processes, including the manufacture of certain hormones and has the ability to remove toxins from the blood stream and store them.

This allows the body to deal with the toxin at a slower rate and helps to keep our vital organs, particularly the liver and kidneys, from becoming overwhelmed. In addition, adipose tissue plays a vital role in the synthesis of certain vitamins, such as A, E, D, and K. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is vital to the human body, but in excessive quantities may have adverse effects on health. In cases of rapid weight gain, the skin may bear stretch marks from being forced to expand too quickly.

In women, subcutaneous fats are most often deposited onto the hips, thighs, and buttocks. These areas are commonly plagued by the appearance of cellulite, which is the uneven distribution of fat pockets, resulting in a lumpy appearance of the skin. Though not yet proven, some evidence suggests that cellulite may contain higher levels of stored toxins than normal subcutaneous fatty layers. In men, excess fat stores typically accumulate around the abdominal area. Unfortunately, research has shown that excess belly fat and heart disease may be linked. It has been hypothesized that the tendency for males to accumulate belly fats may account for their increased incidence of heart disease relative to the incidence of heart disease in women.

As the most visible layer, subcutaneous adipose tissue is the type of fat most commonly targeted by those wishing to slim down. This type of fat may be measured with body calipers. Body calipers serve to estimate with reasonable accuracy the total percentage of one's mass that is composed of fats. This can be particularly useful in determining safe and healthy weight loss goals. Since fats are made up of stored energy, exercise has been found more effective at reducing adipose tissue than diet alone. While it is impossible to eliminate fat cells, it is possible to greatly reduce their size through appropriate eating and exercise habits.

You can learn about white adipose tissue, and get more information and articles about adipose tissue at adipose tissue.

The Chemistry Behind Human Pheromones

In the recent past, human pheromones have been crowned as one of the most effective sexual attraction tools. The biggest question on many people's minds is whether or not humans can actually pass messages using chemical signals.

The straightforward answer to that is yes, humans can do that. One of the oldest lines of evidence is that of the synchrony of menstruation cycles in ladies who are continually in each other's presence. For a long time, this was considered a myth or the product of a set of coincidences. But it was later proven that by simply exposing one woman to the perspiration scent of another, changes take place in her cycle to match the other's cycle.

In the same way, recent research has pointed to the ability of various components of male sweat to influence hormonal balance in females. For instance, Androstadienone was proven to raise the level of cortisol in female subjects.

The conclusion from this study was that human pheromones also communicate. On this basis, cologne manufacturers sought to find out ways in which this can be used to the advantage of their clients.
It was based on a simple line of reasoning to this effect: if for centuries, animals have used the secretion of pheromones to attract partners, humans have too. And the level of impact they make can be greatly enhanced by capitalizing on the strongest players in the domain to come up with that perfect female-magnet scent.

The result of their labor is a variety of scents that are aimed at exerting an influence on the appeal of a wearer. Another result is that because of the high demand for these revolutionary products, there are so many scam artists selling counterfeit products while making the same claim.

Since most people would like to be considered attractive and appealing, the secret to making the best of this provision is by establishing the reputation of the manufacturer of choice. This will serve as a protection against fraud.

For more information, visit They offer Pheromone Reviews, including reviews on Pheromone Cologne.

Types of Polyploidy - Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploid

During the meiosis process where the fusion of the two chromosomes takes place from the father and the mother, there should be proper fusion. If the fusion is not proper and if the cells are still apart then this would result in multiple chromosomes nucleus called as the Polyploid. This is a type of anomaly that occurs during the meiosis process. Formation of Polyploid cells could happen in two ways. One is autopolyploid and the other is the allopolyploid.

An autopolyploid nucleus is a type of Polyploid nucleus which, is formed when the single cell has diploid set of chromosomes both from the same parent. This means that the chromosomes are homologous rather than fusion from different species during reproduction.

Cells containing this set of nucleus do not undergo meiosis at all. The sole condition of meiosis is that they should have one-one cell, which are form two different parents. This condition should be satisfied during the Prophase I of the meiosis phase. Now, since the condition is not satisfied and there are two homologous cells the nucleus becomes an autopolyploid. Now when pairing occurs and there are more than two homologous cells, then there would be much more confusion in pairing them. This results in a Polyploid condition leading to anomaly in the meiosis.

The next type of nucleus is the allopolyploid nucleus. This happens when more than the required number of species contributes to the nucleus chromosomes. For example, we could consider the grain wheat. This wheat is a cross between three types of grasses. Since all the three types are contributing, they hold six set of chromosomes. Each set of chromosome has one homologous pair. This makes them perfect for a complete meiosis.

Initially, such allopolyploids are formed from different type organisms belonging to the same species. This occurred accidentally. However, as man researched to find the advantages for such accidental cross-fertilizations he started to use this method to perform asexual reproduction and to yield several varieties of crops and populate a species. By this way, we can avoid meiosis and getting an exception at this step. This ability of plants has proved that if meiosis is disabled in species then survival is still possible.

This method is now used successfully in cultivation of wide variety of fruit species like banana. This is one of the most successful species of plants, which were cultivated using this method. In fact, most of the commercial success in vegetation business is due to the implementation of allopolyploid nucleus.

Nishi Singh is a molecular biologist and a science commentator. He has a keen interest on mitosis and meiosis.

Adipose Tissue Location In The Body

Adipose tissue is a specialized connective tissue in the body which is the major storehouse of energy in the form of triglycerides deposition. Adipose is usually found in mammals as two different forms such as white and brown adipose tissues. Depending upon the species of mammals the amount and location of the tissue varies. Most of the fat tissues fall under the white category which is located in various organs and various parts in the body.

In human beings, this tissue is found at multiple locations; it is located beneath the skin as subcutaneous fat, surrounding internal organs as visceral fat, inside bones as bone marrow or yellow bone marrow and also in breast. Specific locations of such layers are referred to as adipocytes depots. These depots are a reservoir of adipose tissue that contains several cell types; the highest percentage of cells is adipocytes that contain fat droplets. Some other cells including fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells are also a part of this tissue along with a number of tiny blood vessels. As the integument system includes the skin that accumulates in the deepest level of the subcutaneous layer, adipose tissue is formed beneath the skin and provides insulation to the body from heat and cold.

It acts as a protective padding around all vital organs in the body. Though its major function is to reserve lipids, it also acts as the main source of energy by synthesizing lipids to fulfill the needs of the individual. Obese persons are seen with more amount of adipose in their body. Excessive tissues are seen hanging downward from the abdomen and also known as a panniculus. Sometimes to remove such fats, surgeries are needed. The abdomen has a layer of adipocytes known as visceral and intra abdominal fat. The internal fat protects stomach, liver, intestines and kidneys by forming protective layers inside the body. Breast fat is also a type of white adipose tissue that helps in formation of milk during pregnancy with help of oxytocin hormone and helps the mother to nourish the infants. In human, excess fats are accumulated in the abdominal, hip and also in the thoracic regions.

In different mammals, adipocytes are also found; in mice they are found inside the abdominal layers and cavity forming several depots inside the body. Even around the uterus and ovaries, it forms a layer of fat filled mass providing protection. Brown adipose tissues are densely packed mitochondria and also found in various locations in mammals. As such tissues are good in vasuclarization, in hibernating animals they help in regulating body temperature through non-shivering thermogenesis.

You can learn more about adipose tissue functions, and get more articles and resources about adipose tissue by visiting Adipose Tissue

Adipose Tissue Structure

Adipose tissue is composed of living cells capable of Storing fats. Conversations in a health conscience environment are centered on the cause of obesity. Overweight individuals contain an excessive amount of fat in the body. Fat is not simply a solid white oily material that builds up in various areas just underneath the skin. Fat is a lipid material called triglycerides stored inside individual cells composed of a functional tissue called adipose tissue. Fat storage has several important purposes in the human body and other mammals. Subcutaneous fat lines the body underneath the skin and provides padding and insulation. Animals living in cold regions typically have a thick layer of fat to protect against extreme cold temperature. People have less need to guard against heat loss. However, fat also pads and protects internal organs.

Adipose tissue is composed of living cells like any tissue found in the body. The structure of each cell, called adipocyte, includes the basic components of any cell including a nucleus and the mechanisms to reproduce. Adipocytes can produce new cells in response to the needs for fat storage. Once new fat cells are produced, they become permanent. People that lose a considerable amount of weight typically retain lose baggy skin. The total number of adipose cells is still present even when the amount of stored fat is greatly reduced. The cells are simply smaller.

Fat cells are very dynamic. Stored fat is constantly moving into the blood stream for energy and replaced by new fat materials. Because the structure of the cell forms a network of elastic connective tissue, each cell can expand providing 80 percent of the volume for storing fat. They are living cells that require oxygen and nutrients from the blood and must be in contact with small capillaries. Therefore, obesity is often linked to additional medical conditions including high blood pressure. The heart works harder to pump blood through the entire structure of adipose tissue.

The human body stores two forms of adipose tissue identified by color. White adipose has the characteristic appearance of animal fat and makes up the majority found in the body. It is generally located underneath the skin and around most internal organs. Brown adipose has a larger supply of blood vessels giving a darker appearance. It is found surrounding important organs such as the brain.

Fat cells are designed to meet several important body needs. The structure and location help pad and insulate the body and internal organs. Energy is stored as triglycerides and can be used when the body has an insufficient energy source during periods of fasting. Excessive amounts of fats are the cause of an overweight condition.

You can learn about visceral adipose tissue, and get more articles and resources about adipose tissue at Adipose Tissue.

Function of Adipose Tissue

Adipose tissue is basically the fat we carry in our bodies. It is located in various strategic places throughout the body.

1. Around the heart.
2. Around the kidneys.
3. Under the skin.
4. Long bone marrow.
5. Around the joints.
6. Inside the eye-socket.
7. Buttocks.

Adipose is a loose connective tissue which fills in the spaces between organs creating a cushion or packing which protects the organs, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. Pretend you are planning to mail a gift of antique glassware to a close friend. You would not send the gift unless each piece adequately packed to prevent breakage, would you? Of course not. The same principle holds true for a human package. It would not do for the items within to be allowed to loosely jostle around with every move we make.

The thick layer of adipose tissue which lies under the skin helps keep us warm. It acts as an insulator by reducing the amount of heat lost through our skin. Think of your home. The more insulation present in the outer walls, the warmer your home will stay during the winter months and it will take less energy to keep it warm inside. If you live in an old home with not much insulation, it will take a lot of energy to maintain a comfortable temperature.

Another function of adipose tissue is to store excess energy. What that means is that when we eat more food than we actually need, the extra will be converted to fat which is stored in our adipose tissue. If we do not take in enough food to sustain our exertion level, the body will not simply fall over and quit. Instead, it will draw on the energy that has been stored in our fat cells, or adipose tissue.

A very thin person will most likely not be able to tolerate the cold as well as someone with a 'little meat on their bones', nor would they be able to survive as long if deprived of food. On the other hand, having too much adipose tissue within the body presents the possibility of developing many other health issues. If a person consistently eats more food than needed, or takes in more than is burned up, that person will continually gain weight and the weight gain will not stop until the individual makes a change either in their diet or in the amount of energy they burn each day or a combination of both.

You can learn about brown adipose tissue, and get more articles and resources about this tissue by visiting Adipose Tissue

Vitamins As Antioxidants

Many diseases and disorders are caused due to the damage in the body created by oxidation. The free radicals (FRs) that are produced every day in the body are known to cause oxidative damage in the body which is one of the reasons for aging process. Vitamin A, Vitamin E and Vitamin C behave as antioxidants to clean up the FRs and prevent the body from the damage. Free radicals are molecules that are unstable by nature. They tend to disturb other molecules and snatch away certain particles from them in order to become stable. During the process of taking away the necessary particles for their stability free radicals are known to damage the body cells and generate some more free radicals. Antioxidants are specialized molecules which are said to be perfect. They donate some part of their molecules to free radicals while they still remain stable. The FRs retrieve their necessary particle from the antioxidant and get stabilized. The stabilized FR does not cause any damage to the body. Hence, antioxidants are found to be very much necessary for keeping the body healthy from free radicals.

If the body does not possess sufficient quantities of antioxidants, then the FRs that are produced from the metabolic activities in the body, from the environmental activities like sunlight, from pollution and from mental stress can cause damage to the body. If the cell membrane, cell structures and DNA are damaged, it can affect the functioning of the cell as well as reproduction of cell. The extensive destruction of cells might result in initiation of cancer, can cause Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases.

The antioxidants which are found to be reducing the damaging effect of FR are classified as water soluble and fat soluble. Water soluble antioxidant is vitamin C. This cannot be stored in the body and hence has to be obtained from the diet. The fat soluble antioxidants are vitamin A and E which have to be consumed along with some amount of fat in order to make them soluble. They will be stored in liver. Some of the sources of Vitamin C are green vegetables, citrus fruits, berries, tomatoes, cantaloupe, guava, mango, pineapple, Broccoli and so on. Some of the sources of vitamin E are olive oil, wheat, wheat germ, brown rice, oat meal, sweet potato, green peppers, Broccoli, water cress and many more. Some of the natural sources of vitamin A are carrots, spinach, red and yellow pepper, sweet potato, apricots, mangoes, and cantaloupe and so on. These antioxidants are known to protect the human body from FRs.

Recently, in the year 2000, the reports of a research study conducted by Dr. David Golde MD, physician-in-chief at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer center in New York, revealed that cancer cells are unable to respond to cancer therapy due to vitamin C. He says that, though vitamin C eats away the free radicals and protects the body, extensive consumption of vitamin C might prevent the cancer cells to positively respond to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Research studies have proved that Vitamin E does not prevent the cancer cells from positively responding to radiation. Many interesting studies are still going on to know the effect of these vitamins on cancer therapies. The report related to this subject is provided by Subhuti Dharmananda.

The Role of DNA Testing in an Appeal for Immigration

When a family is putting a petition of immigration, they have to submit the basic documents like birth certificate, school records etc which determine the authenticity of their family relations. In case where the above mentioned documents are not there, the US immigration authorities like the USCIS or US embassies abroad, can ask the applicant and his family to undergo a DNA test which would scientifically establish their biological relationship with each other.

The cost and arrangement of such DNA test has to born by the applicant. The US immigration authorities have mentioned that the test has to be done from a lab that is accredited by AABB (American Association of Blood Banks).

Generally such DNA tests are needed to ascertain the maternal, paternal and sibling relationship of the family. The cases where the immigrants may need DNA testing are mentioned below.

Most of those who select to take a DNA test are asked by the USCIS to do so after they have filed a petition or where their basic documents are not satisfactory to the immigration authorities to give approval. In such cases the test may be compulsory or optional. But since it is the most valid test for determining family relationships, it is considered as a major evidence for immigration.

For the DNA test, a person can get in touch with any AABB accredited laboratory for undertaking the test. These laboratories send a sample collection kit to the US immigration agency abroad or to its group of physicians who will make arrangements and be the witness of the specimen collection for the party. After the collection, the family which is tested will be clearly identified and then there will be ID verification to make sure that these results of testing can be used as valid evidence.

The specimens that are collected will be directly sent to the laboratory in USA for testing. The laboratory will send the results to the field office of the USCIS or to the overseas consulate according to the norms of immigration testing. However, the DNA reports cannot always ensure 100% approval of immigration.

If you want more DNA news then you can visit the author's website.

Role of Technology in "DNA Testing for Genealogy"

Genealogy is nothing but to trace the family history by means of their lineages. By the method of Genealogy we can get the exact idea of our existence. We can get the history of our family by means of Genealogy. It is also a science by which we can identify the parents of a specific child. We can get exact idea of genes by means of Genealogy. In the year 1875, we came to know the significance of surnames in genetics. George Darwin was famous for his investigation in the above field. DNA testing is also related to our psychology as well as emotion. For example if we find a person getting angry quite often, we will have to test his genes. On testing we would find it in his parent's genes.

Previously we had to wait a long time for DNA testing, but today due to the advancement of technology do not have to wait for long any more. We can get the results on a click of a button. Today, due to the advantage of online medication and treatment, we can register our self on a specific website. We are immediately sent a kit after registering. Then according to the instruction if we perform the operation, we can definitely get the result very quickly. This process saves our time and money. We can also make online payment by our credit card. This way, technology in our medical field has made our work very easy and inexpensive.

Today science and technology went together in a long way. After the research of Genealogy, two types of tests were introduced. The first test was named the mtDNA test. Here both the mother and the child are involved. The method of testing is carried on from mother to the child. Mainly mitochondrial DNA is tested in this process. This test is followed in order to check whether both the individuals have common maternal ancestry or not. Cells of mitochondrial DNA are very easy to test, as it hardly gets mixed up with other cells. This test is also required when even the mother is unaware of her relation with the specified baby.

The name of the other test is Y line test. It can be made use of to verify paternal ancestry. Whether two individuals having identical surnames have common parental lineage are checked by means of Y line test. While the mtDNA test was to check common maternal ancestry between two individuals, this test checks common paternal ancestry.

DNA testing can also develop biogeographically ancestry which is used basically to determine the proportion of an individual's ancestry in a specific continent or region.

If you want more DNA news then you can visit the author's website.

Homo Entropicus and the Human Condition

The collapsing of the 20th Century scientific science of life worldview is now obvious. That world-view, governed by Einstein's 'Premier law of all science', the 'Universal heat death Law', now embraces life-science concepts based upon fractal logic. Life-science now extends to a fractal infinity, rather than obeying the concept that all life in the universe must be condemned to a universal heat death extinction. Nanotechnology has revealed the functioning of fractal logic within the DNA responding to evolutionary information that has written the obituary of the horrific sentence of continual chaos that has been imposed upon global society for centuries.

For example. quantum biology scientists, Casati, Guaneri and Maspero from the International Centre for the Study of Dynamical Systems, in Italy, have been researching fluctuations of survival probability in an open quantum system. Now that the newly emerging quantum biological life-science chemistry has been rigorously associated with the Platonic world-view philosophy, as published by the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Division Library, an ancient crude human survival map reveals itself. As 'the human condition' holds the survival blueprint for humanity, this article asks, can the ancient map play a role to help upgrade the fractal model for environmental survival into a new practical medical science?

Medical scientists Tambasco, Eliasziw and Magliocco, have applied fractal analysis to breast cancer, categorising patients according to a scale of low, intermediate and high fractal dimension. Their findings argued that such medical methodology was more relevant for survival than the methodology used by standard prognosticators. From this observation it can be reasoned that fractal logic is the key to human well being. A life-energy discovery, selected for reprinting in 1990 by the world's largest technological research institute, Washington's IEEE SPIE Milestone Series, fully endorses that proposal.

During the 1980s two mathematical life-science papers, from the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia, now considered to have been based upon fractal logic geometrical logic, demonstrated that seashell evolution was governed by new physics forces governing optimum biological growth and development through space-time. A peer review investigation over of the Centre's claim that the 20th Century world-view had been based upon false physics assumptions, was undertaken in 1997 by the United Nations University Millennium Project, Australasian Node. In 2010, Dr Paul Wildman, the Chair to that investigation, stated in writing that the President of the Institute for Basic research in the USA had observed from the published discovery, that the 20th Century scientific world-view was unable to generate healthy biological growth and development simulations through space-time, which gives credence to the above mentioned medical life-science findings.

Fractal geometry, which evolved out of chaos theory, can be described as self similarity at infinite scales. It is a dynamical system that balances order with complexity. Without order, increasing complexity becomes chaotic and malfunctions. Disease can be considered to be an entropic human malfunction. By upgrading the original Platonic life-science guidance map,well-being, on the other hand, is our natural human condition.

The healthy human appears to reflect a fractal wholeness down to sub-atomic particle movement dimensions. Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished heresy papers, discovered last century, expressed such a fractal world-view, in which a "more profound natural philosophy existed to balance the mechanical (entropic) description of the universe", based upon the principles of particle movement. That world-view completely challenges the logic upholding the now obsoltete 20th Century world-view. The former, derived from the Platonic life-science world-view, is important. It is consistent with the new Platonic-Fullerene fractal life science Chemistry now emerging throughout the world, in particular as the forte of the University of Florence's prize winning New Measurement of Humanity Renaissance Project chemistry.

The idea of a Life Force that extends to infinity, has been common to many cultures for millennia, as the source of energy that promotes health and well being. The Chinese call it Chi; in India it is referred to as Prana. Today it is called quantum bio-energy, the auric force field, vortex energy and in many other terms. In the world of physics it is known as scalar or subtle energy and has also been referred to as time-reversed waves, non-hertzian waves, longitudinal waves, scalar waves, or zero-point energy.

In answering our question, what role does fractal logic play in the human condition survival data, the answer can be considered to be that, fractal logic is crucial in order to effect healthy human survival futuristic progression. The sooner humanity embraces the importance of fractal logic in our lives, the more chance Homo Entropicus has of making it to the next evolutionary level.

chris degenhardt is a researcher/editor for and colleague of the Science-art Research Centre of Australia. He is the author of a play called 'Democracy on Trial - the verdict' It can be obtained from his web site []

He is also the author of 'Feminine Ethics in the New Measure of Humanity' which was launched in 2008 at the Byron Bay Writers Festival. It is a review and update of Dr. George Cockburn's 'Bioaesthetics' It is publshed by the Science-Art Centre

A New Era of DNA Genealogy

DNA tests are not only conducted for the identification of a suspected victim. But now it is also being utilized to identify our ancestors and a new stream of DNA Genealogy is very much in vogue.

DNA Genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. In this genealogy, there is a DNA testing ascertain the degree of relationship between two persons. DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is used by the virtue fo its uniqueness and also because of the fact that it is passed across the generations. Certain sections of DNA do not change while others change drastically and they help us to recognize the genetic relation between the individuals.

DNA genealogy can be tested by two types of DNA: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome DNA tests.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is located in the cytoplasm of the cell and not in the nucleus unlike the Y-chromosome (Tracing 2003). mtDNA is passes from the mother to both of her boy and girl child without incorporating anything from the father. Thus the mtDNA of a mother and her child are similar. But it is different from Y-DNA. There is a slow change which makes it very tough to determine near relations and is easy to determine relatedness. Two persons having similar mtDNA share the greater probability of having similar background on their mother's side.

Y-chromosome tests are more recent in the field of Genealogy. This test is only for the males as these Y chromosomes only pass along the males ie from father to his son. The small chemical marks on the Y-chromosomes are responsible for their unique structure. These patterns are called a haplotype. It determines the male connection. This test are undertaken to check whether two persons have the same title or a same ancestor.

The study of Bryan Sykes in 2000 (Sykes and Irven 2000) was one of the earliest starts for DNA genealogy. This used DNA Genealogy (Y-chromosome markers) along with surname studies to determine relationships.

From its beginning DNA Genealogy has really made a rapid progress. Its popularity is on steady rise specially with decreasing costs of this test which make it more affordable to people. The methods of collecting samples for DNA genealogy testing are very simple and free from any pain.

If you want more information about DNA then you can read News about DNA at author's website.

DNA - Important Facts About It

Since DNA is a vital part in our human body, we need to know a lot about it. Firstly, the code of DNA is similar for all living Organism. We can hardly find DNA coding to be different in living things. Thus the code has universal language.

The scientist named Friedrich Miescher discovered DNA. 1896 was the year in which DNA was discovered. With regards to the discovery of genes, we have a very interesting fact. Till 1843 scientists were unaware of the presence of genes in cells. The scientist thought the genetic code was held by proteins.

DNA is very different from proteins.DNA is build with four nucleotides but proteins are composed of twenty amino acids. Thus the composition of DNA would be very different to that of proteins. Thus we should never confuse DNA with proteins.

We use 4 letters in writing the genetic code. The genetic code of DNA consists of the letters A, G, C, T. Where A stands for adenine G for guanine C for cytosine and T for thymine. But we don't use all the four alphabets together. We combine them and make it a 3 lettered word that codes an Amino acid. Here Proline is a very good example which is coded as CCA.

We can even find redundancy in DNA. Usage of more than one word codes the same amino acid.

James Watson and Crick had discovered the double helix structure of DNA by making use of the x-ray crystallography images that Rosalind Frankli made. The replication of DNA came into notice after the discovery of double helix structure.

Another important fact about DNA is its molecular property. Though it is a very important part of our body, yet it can be the worst at times. The molecules in DNA are very fragile. It is not good at staying unbroken. Our body mechanism manages to keep us healthy. They correct such errors but a few damages cannot be repaired, which and are known as mutations. They are the cause of the disease named cancer. Cancer is such a disease, which cannot be cured. We can only try to make the life of the patient lengthy

During the process of replication of DNA at times mistakes take place. At the end of the process though, the amount of mistakes in the DNA succession is remarkably low. It's just about a single mistake in each billion bases.

Though mutation harms living being it is significant as it gives rise to genetic variation.

RNA acts as the mediator between DNA and protein.

If you want more information about DNA then you can read News about DNA at author's website.

Hebbian Learning

Canadian psychologist Donald O. Hebb (1904-85) obtained his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1936, at age 32, and was interested in how people learn and remember. Earlier researchers such as Cajal had suggested that synapses may underlie the brain mechanisms of learning and memory, and Hebb wondered what kind of synaptic activity might be involved. In 1949, Hebb published a book, The Organization of Behavior, in which he sketched some of his theories.

Hebb was struck by how the mind associates different objects to form a pattern or a memory. For example, the sight of a trophy might remind a person of the event or game in which the trophy was won, and the memory of this event, in turn, may spark other memories, such as the congratulations of parents and friends, and so on. Memories often form a chain of associations, with one memory invoking the next. Perception functions in a similar way, with a stimulus, say an apple, invoking a chain reaction, perhaps leading to the realization that one is hungry. But no one knows exactly how such associations form in the brain.

One of Hebb's most important hypotheses is that the connections between neurons increase if their activity is correlated. Suppose that neuron A makes a synapse on neuron B, though the connection is weak. (In other words, the weight of this synapse is nearly zero.) Note that A's synaptic input to B is just one of many inputs to B. If neurons A and B are simultaneously active over some period of time, Hebb hypothesized that the strength of the connection between these neurons will grow. This increase in strength means that in the future, the firing of neuron A will be more important in B's decision to fire or not, so A and B will be more strongly correlated. The association has been learned.

The strengthening of connections caused by correlated activity throughout the network will result in a chain of associations by which one item, be it a perception or memory, invokes others. This hypothesis, called Hebbian learning, has influenced computer scientists exploring artificial neural networks, as well as scientists who study the brain. Although no one knows how much of a role Hebbian learning plays in brain mechanisms, certain synapses do sometimes follow this principle.

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Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide

We are going to talk about some of the best features of a human anatomy study guide and what you should do. The question is this, do you actually have to buy a study guide for Anatomy and Physiology. You may want to take some time to read this if you have some questions about the subject, as we can help you big time!

When I was coming up in college, there wasn't too many things that were around to help us. But quite recently, there has been an outbreak of educating our youth, giving them guide and aides. I honestly believe that the traditional way of studying which is going to class and being lectured is starting to become outdated.

Sure it has it's place, but there are things that you can do to study the subject better, there are software that can help you with these things. We are going to give you some features of the best guide, which is known as Human Anatomy Course.

The Basic Course
The first part that this Human Anatomy Course, (which we will link you to on the bottom), is actually going to tell you everything you need to know about the body and offer you a lesson on what you need to learn. There are some people who say that this can even replace a book!

So it's a pretty good situation. And it's a study aid as well, so you can expect it to be in-depth and awesome!

#2 - Detailed A & P Graphics
You will see that you are going to get graphics depicted each group or part of the muscle. This will definitely help you memorize the body better and quicker! It's one of those things that people overlook, but it is highly important to know each muscle group and what they do. This can help with so many subjects alone such as biomechanics, human anatomy and physiology, and many other classes as well!

Drug Dosage, Therapy, & Pharmacology Study Guide
If you are going towards the medical path or even sports medicine path, this can definitely help you in terms of giving treatment, you will get a human anatomy course and study guide on this portion of learning, Learning the drug dosages, therapy guides, oral and maxillofactal pathology and things of that nature, true medical stuff!

Master Human Anatomy and Physiology in 3 Days or Less Guaranteed with this anatomy online course previously sold to medical professionals only.

For More Information Visit the official course for Human Anatomy and Physiology

The Human Skeletal System - Amazing Facts About the Skeletal System

We are going to give you some amazing facts about the human skeletal system; these facts will help you remember specific things in class and help answer that one question on your scantron or fill in the blank test!

So let's get started with some of the most amazing facts about the human body that can definitely help you out starting today!

First of all, let's start off with the fact that your body has 300 bones when you are born! However, this number reduces because as you grow, your bones fuse together, and as an adult you end up with 206 bones. There is a big difference isn't there!

As you probably already know, if you didn't have bones, you'd be floppy. There are two bones however, Some bones are specifically designed to have structure in your body such as the backbone, and it simultaneously protects your back and the nervous system. A protective bone would be one like the skull, as it obviously protects your brain from outside injury and takes much of the force when there trauma to the head.

Your bones move because the muscles and joints allow them to. There are tons of different types of joints that do different things. Some joints allow forward and back movement, lateral movement only, and others offer 360 degrees of movement.

What is Bone Marrow
The reason why this gets it's own category is because bone marrow is actually one of the more important and amazing part of the bones. You see, many bones are actually hollow, this makes the bone strong, and very light; inside the bone is where red blood cells and white blood cells are produced; so your bones make blood, and are critical to the white blood cells, which of course helps with your immune system.

It's kind of amazing to think that blood comes from your bones right? Other interesting facts is that humans have as many bones in their neck as giraffes, it's just giraffes have longer vertebrae, and contrary to popular belief, 97% of organisms on this earth do not utilize bones or bone structure!

These are just some of the more amazing facts about your body!

Master Human Anatomy and Physiology in 3 Days or Less Guaranteed with this anatomy online course previously sold to medical professionals only.

For More Information Visit the official course for Human Anatomy and Physiology

Amoeba: Story of a Protozoan

Our environment is full of microorganisms. These organisms are not visible to our naked eyes but can be well studied under the microscope. Amoeba is one such microorganism belonging to the phylum Protozoa. The most commonly studies species is the Amoeba proteus. Amoeba was first discovered by Rosenhof in 1757. Earlier naturalists classified this organism under Protista as the animal is able to change its shape. This animal has derived its name from a Greek word meaning change. The name was given by Bory de Saint-Vincent. In 1918 it was found that this animal may be harmful to humans also. The cell organelles as well as the cytoplasm are enclosed within the well developed cell membrane and food is engulfed by phagocytosis. The anterior end is characterized by the presence of a single large pseudopod and small secondary ones are present along the sides. The body length may vary from 220-740 µm with the pseudopodia stretched. Few species can attain much larger sizes also.

The most recognizable feature of these protozoans is the presence of one or more nuclei and a simple contractile vacuole to maintain osmotic equilibrium. The food engulfed by phagocytosis is stored and digested inside the contractile vacuole. They like other eukaryotes reproduce asexually by mitosis and cytokinesis which may not be confused with the binary fission occurring in the bacteria. If they are allowed to divide forcefully then the portion which contains the nuclei divides and will produce a new cell along with cytoplasm and the other portion will eventually die. They lack a definite shape. They bear a remarkable and large genome. The genome of Amoeba proteus is known to contain about 290 billion base pairs much larger as compared to the human genome.

The contractile vacuole is a membrane bound organelle. It is filled up with water from the cytoplasm and then fuses with the cell membrane and releases its content to outside by exocytosis. By this process the amount of water is regulated within the body of this protozoan and the whole phenomenon is called as osmoregulation. As the contents of the contractile vacuole are expelled to outside its membrane crumples and several small vesicles or vacuoles appear around it. It is believed that these vesicles are formed by the membrane of the contractile vacuole itself. These small vesicles also take in water and increase in size and then combine together to join with the contractile vacuole and then expel water to outside. So it can be suggested that the function of these vesicles is to collect excess water and the passing it to the contractile vacuole. The whole cycle is repeated again and again. The membrane bounding the contractile vacuole and the vesicles contain aquaporin proteins. These proteins facilitate water passage. The vesicles participate in rapid water passage by their larger surface area.

The membrane of the vesicle also contains another type of proteins known as Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase or V-ATPase. These proteins pump hydrogen ions into the lumen of the vesicle and lower the pH as compared to that of the cytosol. The pH inside the contractile vacuole is mildly acidic which focuses that hydrogen ions are being removed from them. The electrochemical gradient developed by V-ATPase proteins help in the transport of ions into the vesicles. An osmotic gradient is developed because of this electrochemical gradient and this is facilitated by the aquaporins. The removal of ions during osmoregulation is compensated by an unidentified mechanism. Amoebae are adversely affected by the osmotic pressure caused by extremely saline or dilute water. When the conditions surrounding them become unfavourable they become converted into microbial cysts. These cysts are covered by well protected membranes. When conditions become favourable the cyst wall ruptures and they become active again. They do not divide in the cyst stage and may die if fail to change into active stage again. The marine amoebae remain unaffected by the changes in salinity of water although they are microscopic but some may be as large as grapes.

Navodita Maurice

Cell Functioning

Plant and animal bodies are made up of small cells. The body of a living organism is made up of cells and these cells combine together to constitute a tissue. The tissues are arranged in a particular organ and the organs are distributed all over the body of the organism. A cell is called a basic functional unit of life. Each cell, whether it is a plant or animal cell is comprised of many cell organelles. Each of these cell organelles has its own function to perform in order to maintain the cellular function. The major cell organelles that are present in a cell are DNA, RNA, nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi-complex, microtubules, Lysosomes, ribosomes and cell wall in the case of plant cell.

Nucleus consists of chromosomes which are made up of deoxyribo nucleic acid. It consists of genetic information, which is transcribed and translated into proteins. The proteins are later utilized for cellular metabolism. The structure of the chromosome changes during cell division. They get thickened when the cell is dividing and again become thin when the cell completes division. The numbers of chromosomes in the chromosome set vary with species. The nuclear membrane protects the nucleus and helps in transfer of materials from nucleus to cytoplasm. The transcribed RNA reaches the cytoplasm through nuclear membrane and the necessary proteins for transcription will be transported from the cytoplasm to nucleus. Nucleolus is another cell organelle that is visible only when the cell is not dividing. It consists of RNA, which is used for synthesis of proteins.

Centrioles are two cylindrical organelles that are arranged at right angles to each other on the cellular poles, which help in cell division. Centrioles have microtubules arranged in nine bundles with three tubules in each of the bundle. Plant cells consist of chloroplasts, which are the sites of photosynthesis. The humans depend on the process of photosynthesis occurring in plants for the purpose of food. The chlorophyll pigment inside the chloroplasts is responsible to carry out the mechanism of photosynthesis. Microtubules are also found to be giving support to the cell and act as the cytoskeleton. There is another network of tubules called endoplasmic reticulum which extend from nuclear membrane till the plasma membrane through the cytoplasm. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum helps in storage and division of the cell. It also aids in the transport system in the cell. Rough endoplasmic reticulum helps in synthesis of proteins on the ribosomes, which are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex is found to be present nearer to the nuclear membrane. It helps in synthesis of secretory proteins by attaching an oligosaccharide to each of the secretory protein. Lysosomes have digestive enzymes which can digest the wastes and toxins in the cell and transport it towards the cell membrane for getting removed immediately.

Mitochondria are the organelles which aid in cellular respiration. The first cycle in respiration called glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm, the next process called Kreb's cycle occurs in mitochondrial matrix and the electron transport part occurs on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The structures called oxysomes on the inner membrane of mitochondria are involved in electron transport and in reduction of oxygen into water. Ribosomes are the organelles that help in organizing the protein synthesis apparatus. Cell wall in plant cell is elastic enough to expand the cellular volume, when the cell becomes turgid. Plasma membrane is the cell covering which is made up of lipoproteins. The inner membrane proteins are helpful in transmission of substances across the membrane. Plasma membrane is otherwise called as selectively permeable membrane. The cell ingests the food material, digests it and sends the useful products to the blood stream. The waste materials are excreted into the blood. The waste is cleaned by the kidneys, skin and other excretory organs. These are functions of the cell in brief.